The Gramophone, December, 1925-
cate; and, in a crisis, he could behave with strength and dignity. His intellect was refined and judicious. His knowledge of the musical art was wide and scientific, gTounded upon a just appreciation of the wor~rs of his predecessors; and his facility in the actual writing of music is to be attributed rather to a richly stored mind and a ha,bit of continual mental composition than to a,ny self-confident reliance upon unimproved na,tural gifts.
Mozart's music is "formal" in the best sense: on the one hand he strives, in each form, to bring out the values most proper to that form, and, on the other hand, he expresses his ideas in the forms most appropriate to the ideas in question. This is partly' due to the extreme sensibility of his nature, too keenly appreciative of the genius of each form and each instrument willingly to do violence to i t . Partly also i t is due to his position in the history of music: Haydn had himself contributed to develop and establish the forms of instrumental music, and his industry, curiosity and whimsicality continued to shape and develop them in unexpected ways after they had reached the stage of what we consider the typical classic forms; Beethoven found a set of forms which had been elaborated by men of an earlier generation a,nd of which the more obvious capabilities had been fully explored, and accordingly proceeded to turn them to new uses and charge them with new emotions, so that the new content often overflowed and sometimes seemed to break the vessels into which i t was poured: Mozart grew up a longside of the " sonata" forms, and is eager to show the beauties which are naturally implicit in them. We must not accuse him of conventionality or obsequiousness to fashion: we know, for instance, that though recent events have made us see that the ideas and emotions centring round what is called " nationality" are, for us to-day, wicked and dangerous things made use of only by evil-disposed and malevolent persons to turn men from charity and civility to pride, hatred and mutua,l destruction, nevertheless for (say) Mazzini, the idea of nationality was a centre for emotions mainly Of a humble, fraternal and charitable na,ture; in the same way we must realise that formal strictness, which to us savours rather of a text-book of musical appreciation, was for l\'[oza,rt a natural way of expressing a pure spontaneous apprehension of beauty.
The following recorded works are recommended as i l lustrating Mozart's position in the history of music:
J. S. BACH and HANDEL.-The more important works of these composers had l i t t le immedia,te effect on the history of instrumental music; i t was from their suites that subsequent composers derived their ideas of form; good examples of these are J. S. Bach's Suite for Flute and Strings in B minor (Columbia L.1557-8) and Handel's Water Music (Columbia L.1437-8); interesting examples of the sort of movement from which the forms of single movements arose will be found in J. S. Bach's Allemande from First Partita (H.M.V., E .275-a simple example) and Prelude from Third . English Suite (H.M.V., D .645-a more complicated example).
STAlVITTZ (1717-47).-Trio for Orchestra in F ' (Polydor 62434-5).
PUGNANI (born 1727).-Sonata (Vocalion K.05110 and K.05142).
J. HAYDN.-The best of Haydn's work (and the vast bulk of what has been recorded) was written after Haydn had come under Mozart's influence (the quartets opus 76 were written after Mozart's death); earlier recorded works are String Quartet in F, Op.3 No. 5 (Polydor *72791 and *72793: also recorded by Columbia, L.1638-9, but not so well, in my opinion; this wa,s one of the group with which Haydn first launched the. classical string qnartet on an admjring world) and "Farewell" Symphony in A (Polydor *65782-4).
DITTERSDORF.-A contemporary of Haydn: two movements from string quartets (H.lVLV., DA.l74 and DB.238-these are on the backs of Mozart records and will therefore be mentioned hereunder). Finally, I would specially recommend two books: first, Edward Holmes, "The Life of Moza,rt n (J. lVI. Dent and Sons, Ltd., " Everyman LibrarY,n 2s.); and secondly, H. C. Colles' "The Growth of Music, Part II. the Age of the Sonata, from O. P. E. Bach to Beethoven" (Oxford University Pressr 3s. 6d.). Every gramophonist should pOf;sess a few books on music, for, as wise Mr. Stephen says: "I have bought me a gramophone, and needles r and records, and all; I lacke nothing but a booke· to keepe i t by."
NOTES ON INDIVIDUAL WORKS. K.216. Violin Concerto No.3 in G.-This and the two works next to be mentioned are from a group of violin concertos written in Salzburg in 1776 for performance by the composer himself. This concerto has been played by Jelly d'Aranyi (orchestra conducted by Stanley Chapple) and recorded by Vocalion on five sides (A.0242-4). As this is better in every respect than either of i ts companion works, I shall deseribe i t in some detail. The first movement occupies the first two sides: the orchestral introduction takes 37 bars; i t begins with the first tune of the first subject (which I call " A "); at bar 11 begins another tune from the first subject, of a similar character (I call this" B ") ; then at bar 19 comes (in the tonic) a tune from the second subject (I call this" P "); at bar 26 comes (still in the tonic) another tune from the second subject (I call this "Q"); finally, bars 34 to 37 are founded on the last few bars of A and lead