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The results of the survey organised by Chalmers and Bourget, which appears in their paper, “What Do Philosophers Believe?”, published in Philosophical Studies.

(1) A priori knowledge: yes 71%, no 18%,

other 11%. (2) Abstract objects: Platonism 39%,

nominalism 38%, other 23%. (3) Aesthetic value: objective 41%,

subjective 35%, other 24%. (4) Analytic–synthetic distinction: yes 65%,

no 27%, other 8%. (5) Epistemic justification: externalism 43%,

internalism 26%, other 1%. (6) External world: non-sceptical realism 82%,

scepticism 5%, idealism 4%, other 9%. (7) Free will: compatibilism 59%,

libertarianism 14%, no free will 12%, other 15%. (8) God: atheism 73%, theism 15%,

other 13%. (9) Knowledge claims: contextualism 40%,

invariantism 31%, relativism 3%, other 26%. (10) Knowledge: empiricism 35%,

rationalism 28%, other 37%. (11) Laws of nature: non-Humean 57%,

Humean 25%, other 18%. (12) Logic: classical 52%, non-classical 15%,

other 33%. (13) Mental content: externalism 51%,

internalism 20%, other 29%. (14) Meta-ethics: moral realism 56%,

moral anti-realism 28%, other 16%. (15) Metaphilosophy: naturalism 50%,

non-naturalism 26%, other 24%. (16) Mind: physicalism 57%,

non-physicalism 27%, other 16%.

(17) Moral judgement: cognitivism 66%,

non-cognitivism 17%, other 17%. (18) Moral motivation: internalism 35%,

externalism 30%, other 35%. (19) Newcombs problem: two boxes 31%,

one box 21%, other 47%. (20) Normative ethics: deontology 26%,

consequentialism 24%, virtue ethics 18%, other 32%. (21) Perceptual experience: representationalism

32%, qualia theory 12%, disjunctivism 11%, sense-datum theory 3%, other 42%. (22) Personal identity: psychological view 34%,

biological view 17%, further-fact view 12%, other 37%. (23) Politics: egalitarianism 35%,

communitarianism 14%, libertarianism 10%, other 41%. (24) Proper names: Millian 34%, Fregean 29%,

other 37%. (25) Science: scientific realism 75%,

scientific anti-realism 12%, other 13%. (26) Teletransporter: survival 36%, death 31%,

other 33%. (27) Time: B-theory 26%, A-theory 16%,

other 58%. (28) Trolley problem: switch 68%,

don’t switch 8%, other 24%. (29) Truth: correspondence 51%,

deflationary 25%, epistemic 7%, other 17%. (30) Zombies: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 36%, metaphysically possible 23%, inconceivable 16%, other 25%.

on the other twenty-three questions, philosophers could muster less than 60% support for a particular view. Not much in the way of large convergence then.

“Philosophers disagree about their big issues much more than mathematicians, than physicists, than other scientists do,” Chalmers says, gesturing alarmingly with a glass of water a little too near

1ST QUARTER 2014 tpm discussi o n/i n t e r vi e w

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