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of Western science, pure and applied, lies mainly in the ·apparatus and machinery that have been developed from it and that a rejection of the apparatus and machinery would be tantamount to a rejection of" science. This is an excessively superficial view. - The real achievement lies in the accumulation of knowledge of irinciples. These principles can be applied in a great variety of ways, of which the current application in Western industry is only one. The development of an "intermediate technology", therefore, does not mean a return to an outdated system, something that is a mere "second best". · On the contrary, it means a gerwine forward movement into new territory. · That some fundamental rethinking of the applications of modem science will be necessary before long is being recogni"sed today even in the West. · There are many "neuralgic points" which c"an already be identified without difficulty, where further technological developments in the established direction are certain to iroduc£ "negative returns", - motor traffic in cities is merely the most obvious case in point. Only slightly less obvious, albeit more controversial, is the critical situation that may develop during the next twenty years or so on account of the steep and accelerating rise in world energy demands. ·"Developing countries" which are committing themselves in their forward thinking to the wholesale adoption of iresent- :i::.y Western technology might do well to undertake a study of their long-term energy needs and consider the likelihood or otherwise of these needs being met. Industrialisation as conceived by the majority of development "experts" is in any case like a long, dark tunnel; they believe that a marvellous light will be found at the end, no matter how long it takes to reach it. But if energy supplies should become a limiting factor, one might get stuck in the middle of the tunnel where it is very dark indeed.


However, that may be, the case for "intermediate technology" rests on the solid basis that there is no other means of fighting the twin evils of mass unemployment and mass migration in the" "developing" countries. It also is the only way by which these countries can achieve genuine economic independence and recover the kind of social cohesion which the dual economy is in the process of destroying. It should not be assumed that the development of "intermediate technology" is a task of exceptional difficulty. On the technical side, there exists already a wealth of useable material; but it is extremely widely scattered and needs to be brought tegether. In India, for instance, the Khadi Commission and a multitude of other organisations have been working on this very subject, although perhaps in a somewhat half-hearted way. The irimary lack, it would seem, has been of down-to-earth business sense. · This is not surprising, because in most cases the immediate need seemed to be to protect and keep alive the activities of helpless people who,

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without protection, would have become utterly destitute. The spirit of protection is rarely one conducive to enterprising business management. But the "intermediate technology" is not in this sense protectionist. It is not concerned with keeping alive activities which lack essential viability: it is concerned with creating a new viability.. The question has been raised whether this "intermediate technology" is to be attained by upgrading the traditional technology or by downgrading Western technology. : Either of these approaches may be feasible in some cases; but it is more likely that a new approach would be more promising: a new design derived from a sound knowledge of basic principles and conceived as a business venture. The kind of talent needed for this approach in amnyable in many countries; the price of employing it would be merely a small fraction of the money now poured out on giant schemes which, even if successful, cannot lead to a real mitigation of the misery caused by mass unemployment and mass migration into cities. Finally, a word might be said about raw material supplies. The "intermediate technology'' is of course far less sensitive to the quality of raw raw materials than a more sophisticated technology. Asm entioned already, it will have to rely mainly on local materials, and these will be just the same as those on which all pre-industrial generations have had to rely. ·It is a remarkable fact how much of the traditional knowledge of local materials has been lost during the last two or three generations. ·People will have to learn again that it is possible to have a highly productive agriculture by means of "green manure" and other organic methods and that chemical fertilisers may not be the real answer at all. : They will have to remember how their forefathers built without modern cement and yet extremely durably; how much they relied on trees, not merely for the supply of food and materials but also for the improvement of soil and climate. With the help of modern knowledge they should now be able to do even better in these respects than their forefathers did • Tree planting, indeed, deserves to be singled out for specictl emphasis in this context, because the world is full of cases where the neglect of trees is one of the chief causes of misery and helplessness, while the recovery of a realistic sense of man's dependence on trees would be a most fruitful move in the right direction. No high technology or foreign aid is needed for. planting and looking after trees; every able-bodied person can make his contribution and benefit from it; a wide range of useful materials can be obtained from trees - some species being very fast growers in tropical and semi-tropical climates and these materials lend themselves exceptionally well for utilisation by "intermediate technology". Yet there are few "developing" countries where trees do not suffer from heedless neglect. (To mention only one significant example, the half-term report on India's third five-year plan shows that it is precisely the planned activity in forestry which is most seriously behind schedule.) In most places there is no excuse for any alleged shortages of

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