building materials. The pla1U1il)g experts should study how much has been built without modern cement throughout the ages. ·
The idea of "intermediate technology", since it was formulated two years ago, has attracted a good deal of attention in many "developing" countries. Highly important work has been done at the SIET Institute at Hyderabad, and the Indian Planning Commission held a seminar on "Intermediate Technologies" at that Institute in January, 1964. One of the papers submitted came from Professor D.R. Gadgil, the doyen of Indian economists, and some passages from it may form a fitting conclusion to this paper:
"Everything (he says) thus points to the desirability, nay, urgency, of initiating uidespread industrial development in all rl}gions of the country u;hich uill. prevent accentuation of dualistic features within the economy and mizke for concerted and uniform economic progress • • The scientists and the technicians must be made fully auare of uhat is expected out of the adoption of 'intermediate technology'. Their efforts must be directed tou;cuds the selection and development of those techniques ulzich can serve the given "aims • • • The process of evolving and adopting intermediate technology is a dynamic process uhich should be the centre of interest of the plan of industrialisation of the country. It ·should claim the attention, in an important way, of the ablest scientists and technicians in the country,1and planning in relation to it should be undertaken through integrated planning of uhole aspects and fields of industrial development". _
Foreign aid will be fruitful, instead of destructive, only if it recognises these paramount needs and makes Western intellectual resources available to serve them. In closing, it might be mentioned that the United Kingdom is well placed to give assistance of the right kind. Its "Rural Industries Bureau", for instance, established some forty years ago, may have only a minor role to play within the British. economy, but it has a fund of accumulated experience (and literature) which could be invaluable for the "developing' ' countries. : Similar organisations exist in many other countries. What is immediately needed is a concerted effort of design.
In the beginning they selected a site where sun & wind & rain would not penetrate for it was to be a beautiful garden they were making. to please their god. A garden with flowers which bloomed at the touch of a switch. · & trees, not too small & not. too tall, which would not lose their leaves in autumn. And many unusual colourful plants. and fans to create a fresh spring breeze.
The garden was full of 1 ight so that the beauty of the flowers would be always visible. to their god. & soft grass aired by underground heating where he could recline to watch the coloured lights in the water-fall & listen to the music playing perpetually. to soothe their god. Ot invisible wires they hung flying creatures of many colours. : & on the grass placed stuffed deer & on the glass lake, swans.
Then they began creating their god.