subsoil, but unquestionably the earliest structure was a stake fence hammered into the boulder clay when it was wet, and with an entrance paved with pebbles. It is not even certain that this is part of the castle, but may be much earlier. It is very difficult to make coherent patterns from the scatter of deep post-holes which follows, since the buildings they represent were cleared to make way for the semi-framed structures of the latest phases, but on the inner slope of the rampart there is a series of intelligible rectangular buildings; XXVI, a square tower of incredible carpentry, with every post-hole a different shape, size and depth, XXV, an open-ended shed, whose pebble floor was littered with scrap-iron,
and XX, XXI, XXIII a group of buildings leaning-to against the fighting platform which ran some eight feet wide behind the main palisade. At an early period also there was at the base of the rampart a hearth, close to a large oven, perhaps for bread, since there was no evidence of any industrial use.
In the last two periods, Y and Z, very few deep post-holes had been used, the buildings being constructed in a partially framed technique with sill beams and very shallow post-sockets defined by lines and circles of small stones. As the evidence of both these two periods lies within nine inches of the surface it is obvious that one ploughing would have destroyed these last phases and produced the false impression that period X was the latest period.
Phase Y. c. 1175-1200
The centre of the bailey seems always to have been a cobbled open space, for assembly, fires and the corralling of horses. A fence separated this courtyard from an apsidal three-bay chapel 25 feet long and 13 feet wide, which must have been built in a completely framed technique. The chapel stood on the edge of the bailey just inside a palisade which bounded the motte ditch on the bailey side, and close to a 15 foot square pit, which in its earlier phases had been a very deep timber-lined cesspit on deep-litter principles with a superstructure of unknown form. It is difficult to correlate precisely the phases of