Many of the small enclosures in Wales are very close together. Here we see Dan-y-Coed (left) and Woodside (right, with second, outer, bank). Could both have been occupied together? Or did one succeed the other?
Photo: T. A. James forts, some quite unlike the wellknown Irish raths. The enclosures however, are generally held to indicate a non-nucleated population. The date of the sites is uncertain— some may be of the Roman period or of post-Roman origin, some even mediaeval. Some may have a long history of use and re-use. Certainly there are some areas where enclosures are too densely concentrated for all to have existed at the same time. One of these concentrations is in the upper reaches of the eastern branch of the River Cleddau in the parish of Llawhaden, where eight sites were already known and the ninth discovered recently from aerial photographs. As part of a long-term programme of investigation into small enclosures in Dyfed, the Trust decided to investigate all the enclosures in the Llawhaden group threatened by ploughing, including four ringworks and two larger sites.
This was not in fact the beginning of the project, which started with a review of all sites by George Williams, one of the Trust's Field
Farming and fighting in Iron Age Pembrokeshire
The south west corner of Wales is now known as Dyfed and comprises the former counties of Carmarthen, Pembroke and Cardigan. Here the Dyfed Archaeological Trust has been established under Don Benson, formerly of the Oxfordshire County Museum where he was well-known for his field work, and where he invented the Sites and Monuments Record (the SMR). In Dyfed, in addition to major work in Roman Carmarthen, two other long-term projects have emerged; one on standing stones which is the subject of our next article, and one on the small enclosures of the Iron Age.
I RON Age Pembrokeshire is not characterised by great hillforts, but by a large number of smaller defended enclosures. Two broad types are present—larger, apparently
stronger sites, often sited on promontories—and smaller circular ringworks. Some of these sites are called 'raths', but in Pembrokeshire this name is applied to a variety of