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through sand and gravel and a masonry shaft had to be constructed, within which putlog holes indicate the position of the ladder and scaffolding used in the construction. About gone out of use as a royal residence and was used mainly as a prison, a role which was to continue until it was converted into a museum in 1886.

halfway down, natural chalk was reached and a circular well shaft was dug which did

In the second half of the fifteenth century the well near the bridge became a rubbish not need shoring.

In 1216 the castle was captured by Louis the Dauphin of France and, as a result, a defensive barbican was formed by digging a massive ditch across the middle of the south bailey. This was up to 27 metres wide and 12 metres deep - more than twice as wide and deep as the bailey ditches.

dump and some spectacular objects were recovered from it. The most interesting came from an armoury and weapon workshop:

spurs and spur leathers had been refitted and there was a very large number of goose wings - the most useful feathers for fletching arrows were goose pinion feathers and these were used in enormous numbers.

Excavations on top of the matte bridge with

When the city walls were completed in

1344, the outer baileys became redundant and the townspeople soon began to encroach

The area to the west of the castle appears to have been a centre for armour manufac-

ture judging by the street names: Sadelgate the great Norman keep into the castle precinct. Initially this was (now White Lion Street) was first docuin the background. A

done illegally, but in 1345 Edward III granted mented in 1246 and was known as The sequence of medieval road surfaces survived the baileys to the city and encroachment increased. By around 1300 the castle had

Lorimers Row in 1322 (a lorimer was the maker of the metal parts of horse harness).

Throughout the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, it was named with reference to spurriers (spur manufacturers), still being known as Spurry Row as late as 1626. The

Saddle gate area also included swordmakers,

armourers, girdlers, saddlers and sheathers according to the documents. One saddler was still operating there as late as 1843.

Post Medieval

In the post-medieval period the castle ditches became one of the city's major rubbish dumps, although the authorities strove to keep them clear. Many court cases involved the unlicensed dumping of refuse or the erection of fast-food booths selling food and drink while the assizes were in session.

This rubbish inevitably proved very inter-

esting to the archaeologists. There is a mass of animal bones, while among the pottery vessels are some Dutch type examples which may reflect the presence of the Dutch and

Walloon families - the "Strangers" who were invited to Norwich from 1546 to produce draperies and textiles. A very unusual find is a sledge made from the jaw bones of two horses. Such sledges can be seen in the sixteenth-century Dutch and Flemish paint-

ings such as those by Pieter Brueghel the Elder: it is tempting to imagine a child sledging down the snow covered slopes of the castle earthworks. Another very unusual find was a parrot, apparently the first parrot discovered at an archaeological site in

England. How did it get from the southern hemisphere to Norwich?

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