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targeted especially the Boulton and Paul works on King Street. Construction in 1963 of what was effectively an inner city bypass meant that it was no longer a main thorough-

fare, and today it is a backwater of one-way systems. Another blow came in 1970 when the brewers, Watney Mann Ltd, radically expanded their brewing operations on the street and in so doing split the street into two halves. Almost incidentally their huge new distribution depot destroyed much of what remained of the Austin Friary. Moreover, from the 1970s the river traffic which had nurtured many of the street's businesses declined rapidly and industry along the river Wensum began to relocate.

Since 1997 four excavations have been conducted by Norfolk Archaeological Unit,

each of which was pump-primed by the Single Regeneration Budget process. Between the river front and street new houses and flats, restaurants and tourist attractions are replacing the empty sheds and warehouses of the 20th-century. The area is beginning to revive. How far can we now begin to elucidate some of its former glories?

. Earlyhistory

Development must have begun in the

Late Saxon period, for of the eight churches along King Street three have Saxon dedications: St Etheldreda, St Clement and St Olave.

Indeed St Olave, beside the present-day river crossing, suggests a Scandinavian founda-

tion. Good archaeological evidence for the importance of the river in this early period came from the southern end of the street,

close to the site of St Olave's. A major attraction of King Street has always been its proximity to the river, which offers the best wharfage in Norwich, and at Cannon Wharf evaluation trenches revealed willow and oak multiples of the same measurement and,

indeed, even the round tower of St Julian church has precisely the same diameter.

Current research is attempting to discover revetments at right angles to the river which would have allowed boats to have been whether these measurements suggest a pulled ashore and unloaded. On three other campaign of early medieval town planning

Top. St Julian's church, home of Julian of

Norwich. It was bombed in the last war,

and is largely rebuilt.

sites the remains of Late Saxon buildings have been discovered. At the Ben Burgess & Co. site a large structure built of posts set in a beam foundation and with a chalk floor proved to be of 10th or 11th century date.

By the 12th century property boundaries had been established and plots of 21 ft (6.4m)

width were being laid out. At Dragon Hall three burgages of this width have been discovered, a fourth and fifth unequally made a width of 42 ft (12.8m) and five further was undertaken. Incidentally, St Julian is by far the best known church in Norwich for it is Below. The Music here that Julian of Norwich (1342- 1429), the first woman to write a book in English, lived as an anchorite.

The Music House is Norwich's earliest

House. Hidden behind the somewhat eclectic exterior is a stone-built

Norman hall, the oldest surviving secular building. Today it houses standing domestic an adult education centre but it was con- building in Norwich. structed in the 1150s as a stone-built house similar to those excavated at St Peter at

Palace Plain (CA80) and on the French adjacent tenements of the same width have been noted. The only extant building of this date on King Street, the Music House, used

Borough site (see this issue). The building is the earliest local example of a trend that during the 1200s saw the stretch of King lM(u.rl~nt~

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