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meaning 4 modernization of 165-7 spread of 71-3 today 168-9 and the West 136 Islamic law see fiqh; shariah state defined 159 istislah: public interest; a source of Islamic law. 62, 66

Jamaat-e-lslami 147, 148 jamia: universities. 86, 124 Jerusalem attacked 138-40 Jews, slaughter of 139 jihad: struggle; any earnest striving in the way of God, involving personal, physical, intellectual or military effort, for righteousness and against oppression and wrong-doing. 60-1 justice see adl

Ka'aba 6, 9, 55 kalam: rational philosophy claiming to demonstrate the existence of God. 89 Karbala, battle of 74 Khaldun, ibn 91 khalifa: trusteeship. In Islam, the earth with all its flora and fauna is a sacred trust from God and we are responsible and accountable to God for its care. 55 Khattab, Umar al- 69 Khazini, al- 104 Khwarizmi, al- 99 Kindi, al- 90 Kitab al-Aghani 83 Khomeini, Ayatollah 156 Koran see Qur'an law see fiqh; shariah libraries 84, 124, 132 literature 30-1, 95-7, 124

Madina

Muhammad goes to 18-19 attacked by Makkans 21 madrassah: college. 85, 132 mahdi 75 majlis: parliament. 156 Majriti, al- 103 Makkah 5, 6

defence of 23 fall of 25 hajj 55 rulers 6 Malcolm X 152

manufacturing industry 105 mathematics 98-9 Mawdudi 148 Mawsili, al- 121 Mecca see Makkah medicine 108-10, 124, 132 miraj: ascension. 16 Mongols 126 moon, Muslim calendar 18 mosque 85 Muawiyah 74 mudarabah: profit sharing, one of the principles of Islamic economics. Muhammad born 5 death 28 death of son 1 7 farewell sermon 26-7 followers tortured 12 message of 49-50 parents died 5 persecuted in Makka 14 plot to kill 18 revelation 8 sayings see hadith musharakah: partnership, one of the principles of Islamic economics. music 121-2, 124 Muslim

Brotherhood 147-8 calendar 18 civilization, decline of 126-42 cooperation between states 154 minorities 150 society experimented on 135 world, extent 149 Muslim, Imam 33 Muslims 4

black 152 in Europe 151 persecuted 24 Mutazilites 89-90

nafs: soul, desire; the control of one's nafs is "the greater jihad". Nasser, Jamal Abdul 147 numbers 99, 124

oppression 57 optics 101, 110, 124 Opus Astronomicum 102 Orientalism 141

Pakistan 146, 148 paper industry 80-1 , 124 philosophy 89, 124

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