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Despite Pietism's emphasis upon intuitive experience, its adherents laid great stress upon devotional exercises. A contemporary of Kant's at the Collegium Fridericianum, David Ruhnken, who later became teacher of philology at the University of Leiden, spoke of the "pedantic and gloomy discipline of fanatics" which dominated the organization of the school.

The curriculum of the institution was filled with uninterrupted prayers and periods of devotional exercises, with periods of edification, sermons and ' catechizing.


Theoretical classes were designed to insist upon the topics' relation to religious and theological questions.

Whilst Kant cherished the memory of the domestic Pietism of his parents and maintained respect for their traditional Pietist calm and serenity, he had nothing but scorn for the official version of Pietism encountered at school.


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