Index analysis of covariance

(ANCOVA) 170 analysis of variance

(ANOVA) 168–70 averages 4, 64–77

mean 60, 65–7, 72,

73–4, 86, 90 median 68–70, 72, 73–7 mode 71, 73–4 bar charts 83 Bayesian approach 45 bimodal distributions 93, 152 binomial distribution 46–8, 50 biserial correlations 143, 144 causation 117 censuses 19, 26, 27, 80 Central Limit Theorem 52–3 chi-square system 153–8

distribution 153, 154, 158 goodness of fit test 153,

154 goodness of fit testing

150–1, 154 statistic (for contingency tables) 154–6 coefficient of variation

105–8 continuous data 47, 109 continuous variables 36,

109, 141 correlation association vs. 149 biserial 143, 149 curvilinear 122

correlation ratio 122 developmental 116 ecological 116 functional 116 Kendallʼs tau 148 Kruskall-Wallis 149 Mann-Whitney U test 149 multiple 135, 139 negative 121 part 138–9 partial 139, 149

Pearson product-moment

132 simple 134 phi 140 point-biserial 143–4 positive 120–1 polychoric 140, 149 rank order 146 regression vs. 130–1 Spearman rho 146 spurious 118 tetrachoric 140–1 triserial 144, 149 Wilcoxon signed-rank 149 zero 120 correction factor 157 covariance 99, 132 curve fitting 84, 90 curves, Pearsonian family 95 curvilinear relationships 122 data management procedures 78–90 degrees of freedom 157 demography 24 dependent variable 133 determinism 14 deviational formula 101, 103 deviational value 101 dichotomies 140–1 directional selection 94 discrete data 47 discrete variables 36, 109 disruptive selection 93 distributions 35, 76, 79,

85–93, 102 frequency 35, 76, 79,

85–93, 102 relative frequency 43–4 probability 35, 46–53

binomial 46–8, 50 chi-square 153–8 F 35, 170 normal 50, 52–3,

58–60, 150 Poisson 49 t 165 estimation theory 171–2

factor analysis 147 Fisher, R.A. 133, 153,

166–72 four-fold tables 140 frequency distributions 35,

76, 79, 85–93, 102 frequency polygons 84 Galton, Francis 12, 57, 62,

63, 68–70, 78, 96, 104, 117, 123, 125, 127, 150 Galtonʼs dilemma 131 gaming theory 37 Gaussian curve 54 Gaussian distribution see normal distribution goodness of fit tests 150–1,

154 Gosset, W.S. 90, 159–64 histograms 83 hypothesis testing 171 incidental sampling 81–2 independent variable 133 inferential statistics 171 interquartile range 97 Kendallʼs tau 148 kurtosis 86, 89, 90, 92 “law of errors” seenormal curve least squares method

128–9 Lexican ratio 151 Malthus, T.R. 23–4, 26 Malthusian populations 23 mathematical statistics

12–13 matrix algebra 136 mean 60, 65–7, 72, 73–4,

86, 90 median 68–70, 72, 73–7 method of moments 86–90,

99 mode 71, 73–4 moments 86–90, 99 morphologists 15 mortality tables 22