Publisher: Rolof van Hövell tot Westerflier Managing Director: Jasper Oorthuys Editor: Jona Lendering Contributing Editor: Josho Brouwers Design & Media: Christianne C. Beall Design © 2015 Karwansaray Publishers
Contributors: Kees Alders, René van Beek, Chris Bond, Duncan Campbell, Marc DeSantis, Pieter van der Horst, Christian Koepfer, Richard Kroes, Holger Michiels, Daan Nijssen, Manolis Peponas, Tanya Sieiro van der Beek, Dirk-Jan de Vink, Cristian Violatti
Illustrators: Christy Beall, Rocío Espin, Shen Fei, Milek Jakubiec, Mirco Paganessi, Maxime Plasse, Fabrice Weiss
Thanks to: Duncan Campbell, Marc DeSantis
Print: Grafi Advies
Editorial office PO Box 4082, 7200 BB Zutphen, The Netherlands Phone: +31-575-776076 (NL), +44-20-8816281 (Europe), +1-740-994-0091 (US) E-mail: email@example.com Customer service: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.ancienthistorymagazine.com
Contributions in the form of articles, letters, reviews, news, and queries are welcomed. Please send to the above address or use the contact form on www.ancienthistorymagazine.com
Subscriptions Subscriptions can be purchased at www.kp-shop.com, via phone, or by email. For the address, see above.
Distribution Ancient History Magazine is sold through retailers, the internet, and by subscription. If you wish to become a sales outlet, please contact us at email@example.com Copyright Karwansaray B.V. All rights reserved. Nothing in this publication may be reproduced in any form without prior written consent of the publishers. Any individual providing material for publication must ensure that the correct permissions have been obtained before submission to us. Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders, but in few cases this proves impossible. The editor and publishers apologize for any unwitting cases of copyright transgressions and would like to hear from any copyright holders not acknowledged. Articles and the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the editor and/or publishers. Advertising in Ancient History Magazine does not necessarily imply endorsement. Ancient History Magazine is published every two months by Karwansaray B.V., Rotterdam, The Netherlands. PO Box 1110, 3000 BC Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ISSN: 2211-5129 Printed in the European Union. Unless otherwise indicated, all photos © Karwansaray Publishers, Holger Michiels, Izabela Miszczak, or Livius.org.
THEME: Pergamon was one of the jewels of the Hellenistic world, a centre of art and learning, whose influence can be felt even today.
Pergamon Hellenism's forgotten civilization
The Attalid empire and capital Maps of the Pergamene world
The Attalid jewel The city of Pergamon
A bookish rivalry Libraries at Alexandria and Pergamon
Glass Ancient objects and ancient sources
The papyrus Growing an ancient sedge
Money talks Cash in the first century AD
Kayanian history How the Persians reinvented their past
Preliminaries On the cover & other things Reviews Books about the ancient world
Pergamene puzzle The great altar of Pergamon
"The throne of Satan" Five ways to read four ancient words
Imperial gladiators A procurator's offering
Roman segmental arch bridges A blind spot in the history of technology
Enigmatic Hatra A desert city long ago abandoned
Lust for life The philosophical system of the Hedonists
How do they know? The age of organic material
WAR OF WORDS The rivalry between the libraries in Pergamon and Alexandria.
POUNDING PAPYRUS How the ancient world's favourite writing material was created.
BRIDGING THE GAP Ancient Roman bridge building technique and practice.
Ancient History Magazine 3