Editor-in-chief: Jasper Oorthuys Editor: Sandra Alvarez Proofreading: Naomi Munts Design & Media: Christianne C. Beall Design © 2017 Karwansaray Publishers Contributors: Erich B. Anderson, Sarah Berry, Hareth Al Bustani, Duncan B. Campbell, Scott Forbes Crawford, Jona Lendering, Rebecca Littlechilds, Lindsay Powell, Carole Raddato, Graham Sumner, E. J. Taylor, Julie Wileman Illustrators: Rocío Espin, Zvonimir Grbasic, Tina Ross, Graham Sumner, Marek Szyszko Special thanks: Carole Raddato (followinghadrian.com) and Jona Lendering (livius.org) for their photographs Print: Grafi Advies Editorial office PO Box 4082, 7200 BB Zutphen, The Netherlands Phone: +31-575-776076 (NL), +44-20-8816281 (Europe), +1-740-994-0091 (US) E-mail: email@example.com Customer service: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.ancienthistorymagazine.com Contributions in the form of articles, letters, reviews, news, and queries are welcomed. Please send to the above address or use the contact form on www.ancienthistorymagazine.com Subscriptions Subscriptions can be purchased at www.kp-shop.com, via phone, or by email. For the address, see above. Distribution Ancient History is sold through retailers, the internet and by subscription. The exclusive distributor for the UK and the Republic of Ireland is Seymour Distribution Ltd, 2 East Poultry Avenue, London, EC1A 9PT, United Kingdom. Phone: +44 (0)207 429 4000. Copyright Karwansaray B.V. All rights reserved. Nothing in this publication may be reproduced in any form without prior written consent of the publishers. Any individual providing material for publication must ensure that the correct permissions have been obtained before submission to us. Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders, but in few cases this proves impossible. The editor and publishers apologize for any unwitting cases of copyright transgressions and would like to hear from any copyright holders not acknowledged. Articles and the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the editor and/or publishers. Advertising in Ancient History magazine does not necessarily imply endorsement. Ancient History is published every two months by Karwansaray B.V., Rotterdam, The Netherlands. PO Box 1110, 3000 BC Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ISSN: 2451-8700 Printed in the European Union.
ON THE COVER Tying the theme of crime and punishment to mythology, our cover features a Greek vase (c. 380 BC) depicting Hercules carrying the Cercopes, who were troublemaking forest creatures known for lying, cheating and thievery. Hercules caught them stealing his weapons, and punished the Cercopes by carrying them upside down on a yolk across his back. This caused them to laugh at the sight of his naked rear end. Apparently the hero saw the humor in the situation, and let the creatures go.
© The Getty Museum / Public domain
CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE ANCIENT WORLD Whenever a society has rules and laws, there are individuals that will break them. The ancient world was no exception: dealing with criminal activity was a fact of daily life, with punishments that were often harsh by modern standards.
Christian persecutions The myth of martyrdom
Julia Restuta Murdered for her necklace
Pirates of Cilicia Reaving the golden sea
To spite a face Mutilation in the Byzantine Empire
Policing the ancient world Ancient gatekeepers to modern job
Further reading Books on ancient crime & punishment
Discover Olympos A pirate town in Lycia
Saucy Romans Date sauce for boiled ostrich
Blood-soaked groves? Human sacrifice in ancient Britain
48 Human booty
Slavery in the ancient Near East
Never enough evidence Philostratus and the Damis source
Preliminaries What's new in ancient history
Hollywood Romans Masada: aka The Antagonists (1981)
A PIRATE'S LIFE FOR ME The Cilician Pirates were a major headache for Rome during the first century BC.
HATS (AND HEADS) OFF What do we really know about druids and human sacrifice in Romano-Britain?
Ancient History 18 3
TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S