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CONTENTS

AUGUST 2019

FEATURES

22 The race to the moon Kendrick Oliver chronicles the Cold War rivalry that spawned Apollo 11

30 The world in July 1969 Alwyn Turner describes the issues grabbing attention on Planet Earth as Neil Armstrong made his giant leap

36 Henry VIII’s “bastard son” Mathew Lyons reveals how Henry Fitzroy rocked the Tudor court

40 Trafalgar: a futile victory? Sam Willis reassesses the impact of the battle that made Nelson an icon

51 Civil War cross-dressers Mark Stoyle on the women who fought for king and parliament in men’s clothes

56 Medieval European union Chris Bowlby explains how the Hanseatic League came to dominate a continent’s trade routes

62 Mixed-race babies Lucy Bland tells the stories of the British children of black American GIs

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