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Index art and reality 29, 31–2 authors, Barthes on 105–8 Balzac, Honoré 110 Barthes childhood 157 death 170–1 homosexuality 155 influences 101 in Japan 152–6 on literature 27 on love 161 mother 158–9 theme in work of 146 tuberculosis 78 Boileau, Nicolas 70–1 bourgeoisie 64–5, 67 Brecht, Bertolt 66, 68–9 castration 117, 122–5 Chambre Claire, La 158 cinema 170–1 clarity, Barthes against

70–3 class 70

see also bourgeoisie codes 57 Coleridge, S. T. 27–9 combinatory analysis

139–41 connotation 49 conventions 24, 37, 57 cultural constructs 25 Death of the Author, The

105, 108 Derrida, Jacques 46, 73 desire 137–8, 140 École Pratique des

Hautes Études 79 Elements of Semiology

34, 36, 41, 49–50 Empire des Signes, L’

152, 156 fashion, Barthes on 53–4,

57 Foucault, Michel 73, 149 Fourier, Charles 128, 140 free will 62–3, 87 Freud, Sigmund 86, 96 God 136–9 Goldmann, Lucien 90–5 Gramsci, Antonio 102 harmony 140–3

hegemony 102 identity, marks of 37–8 illusion see mimetic illusion;

theatre; wrestling Isherwood, Christopher 111 Jansenism 87, 91–2, 96–7 Japan, Barthes in 152–6 Lacan, Jacques 73 language 35–7, 40–1,

146–7 and the author 105 and literature 150–1,

167–9 as natural 6 and signs 38, 45, 55 structure 37 langue, la 35 Lanson, Gustave 124 Lévi-Strauss, Claude 73 literary criticism 104 literature 144–5, 165–9

and language 150–1,

167–9 logothetes 130 Lover’s Discourse, A 161 Loyola, Ignatius 129, 136–9 Marx, Karl 64, 67 Mauron, Charles 95, 98 Michelet, Jules 149 mimetic illusion 112–13 money 162–4 Mythologies 6–8 naturalness 4–7, 48, 76–7

language 6 nature 3, 16 Nietzsche, Friedrich 152 numbers 127, 132–3, 140 Obvie et L’Obtus, L’ 154 On Racine 85, 89 parole, la 35–6 performance 10, 18 Picard, Raymond 80–1,

89, 102–3, 124 Pierre, l’Abbé 60–1 Plaisir du Texte, Le 168–9 post-structuralist, B. as 45 pre-existent reality 112 pretence 10–11 reader and text 115, 125 realism 74–5 Rivarol, Antoine 72

Roland Barthes by Roland

Barthes 76, 155, 165

Sade, Marquis de 126–7,

130–5 Sainte-Beuve, Augustin de 108 “Sarrasine” 113, 116–24 Sartre, Jean-Paul 62–3 Saussure, Ferdinand de

12–19, 34 self-image, signs 59 semiology elements of 34–5 everyday 60–3 sex 143, 162–5 signified, the 45

definition of 13 and linguistics 45, 50 and signs 13 signs 12

as code 20 in context 46 in fiction 109 final meaning 46–7 in Japan 156 and language 38 and self-image 59 and the signified 13, 45 types 38 society 16, 41, 141 speech and system 51–3 Spiritual Exercises, The

136 Stoppard, Tom 49 structure of language 37 vs. nature 16 S/Z 77, 104, 109–25 taboos 42–4, 57 texts, meaning 46, 115 theatre 66, 68–9 Totem and Taboo 86–7 unconscious structure 88 unreadability 71–2 Utopia 140–5 Walpole, Hugh 111 Wilde, Oscar 77 words 3, 14 wrestling, example 8–11,

15–16, 17–19, 20, 27–9 writing 76–7, 156 Writing Degree Zero 70,

74, 77

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