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CONTENTS

NOVEMBER 2020

FEATURES

20 Sparta’s last stand Did 300 warriors really defy a mighty Persian army in 480 BC?

Andrew Bayliss investigates

28 Belgian refugees Alison S Fell relates the experiences of the thousands of Belgians who fled to Britain during the First World War

35 Medieval genius Seb Falk argues that the Middle Ages were a hotbed of scientific ingenuity

42 Sherlock Holmes in skirts Elizabeth Evens on the pioneering policewomen who snared criminals in turn-of-the-century New York

50 Europe’s nightmare Michael Rowe argues that the

Franco-Prussian War had an immense impact on the modern world

59 Fake news and Nazis Richard J Evans considers what

Nazi conspiracy theories can tell us about the Third Reich

66 Black trailblazers Angelina Osborne profiles seven black pioneers whose contributions to British history deserve a wider hearing

Discover why Hitler’s Germany has spawned a plethora of conspiracy theories, on page 59

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42 How the world’s first policewomen extended the long arm of the law in New York

92 We explore the rags to riches history of the port of Rye

66 Life stories of seven pioneering black Britons

28 The plight of the Belgians who fled to Britain in 1914

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I X – J O H N G A L L A G H E R

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I M A G E S

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D R E A M S T

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