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Introduction 6

The Patrician Gardens of Rome 14 ad 79–476

Byzantium and the Paradise Garden 26 ad 395–1453

Medieval Europe 32 and the Hortus Conclusus 5th–15th centuries

The Italian Renaissance 46 Humanism, the High Renaissance and Mannerism 15th–17th centuries

The French Renaissance 74 15th–17th centuries

Britain 108 The Tudors and Stuarts 1509–1613

War in Europe 132 and the Dutch Golden Age 1613–1702

The Swan Song of the Formal Garden 164 England at the turn of the 18th century

The Landscape Movement 182 England in the 18th century

The Victorian Garden 206 England in the 19th century

The Arts and Crafts Movement 228 The late 19th and early 20th centuries

Summing Up 250 Into the 21st century

Garden glossary 282 • Further reading 284 Index 285 • Acknowledgments 288

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