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AFTER THE FIRE London Churches in the Age of Wren, Hooke, Hawksmoor and Gibbs © Pimpernel Press Limited 2016 Text © Angelo Hornak 2016 Photographs © Angelo Hornak 2016 Except as noted on page 384

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission in writing from the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying. In the United Kingdom such licences are issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London, ec1n 8ts.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Designed by Anne Wilson Typeset in Caslon, Centaur and Vaud isbn 978-1-910258-08-8 Printed and bound in China by C&C Offset Printing Company Limited

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CONTENTS

FOREWORD

The Right Reverend Stephen Platten Rector of St Michael on Cornhill and Assistant Bishop in the Diocese of London

6

INTRODUCTION

The Fire and the Coal Tax

8

THE GREAT FIRE OF LONDON

10

RISING FROM THE ASHES

Christopher Wren

18

18

Robert Hooke

30

The Royal Declaration and the Rebuilding Acts 35 Surveying the City 37 Rebuilding the City Churches 38 The Monument to the Fire of London 42 Designing the Churches 48

endpapers St Mary-le-Strand, 1714–17, by James Gibbs. The ceiling.

half title St Vedast-alias-Foster. Dove in Glory, 1690s, carved by Edward Strong.

title page St Stephen Walbrook, c.1672–1715, by Sir Christopher Wren.

right Detail from A Prospect of the City of London, by Johannes Kip. This engraving of 1724 shows the City as rebuilt after the Great Fire.

opposite St Mary Woolnoth, 1716–27, by Nicholas Hawksmoor. The ceiling.

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