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Aboriginal Australians The native peoples of Australia, who arrived on the continent around 40,000 years ago.

Algae Organisms that use photosynthesis to make energy and are the ancestors of plants.

Amphibians Group of animals that live partly in the water and partly on land. Examples include frogs and toads.

Anthropologist Studies how humans live together and behave in societies now and in the past.

Apartheid System used in South Africa from 1948 until 1994 that separated people by skin colour.

Archaeologist Studies physical remains left behind by humans, including tools and ancient ruins.

Arthropods Animals with hard external exoskeletons and no backbones, like beetles and crabs.

Astronomer Studies space objects and phenomena, such as stars and gamma rays.

Assyriologist Studies the history of the ancient Assyrian Empire and surrounding region.

Astronaut Travels into space.

Astrophysicist Studies the forces, matter and energy that make up the universe, from collapsing stars to speeding comets.

Atom A combination of neutrons, protons and electrons that is the smallest unit of a particular substance.

Automaton A machine built to repeatedly perform the same task.

Biologist Investigates the mechanisms and varieties of life, including its origins.

Buddhism Religion based around the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, often known as the Buddha.

Capitalism System where things like land and property are owned by individuals and companies, not the government, and people compete to make a profit.

Catholicism Christian religious group with a single leader, the Pope.

Christianity Religion founded on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

Civil rights leader Leads others in the ef ort to improve equality in society.

Civil war Conflict in which dif erent groups within a single society fight against each other.

Climate change Process in which environmental conditions on Earth change over time.

Colony (biology) Group of individual organisms of a single species living together and supporting each other.

Colony (history, politics) Settlement established by a group, usually a nation, in foreign territory.

Communism System in which productive enterprises, such as factories, are owned by everyone and wealth is shared.

Confucianism System of influential teachings developed by the ancient Chinese thinker Confucius.

Conquistadors Spanish explorers and soldiers who conquered the New World in the 1500s.

Constitution Document outlining the basic laws and systems of government in a particular country.

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