Map showing the location of the research sites.
betrayed by his own cousin. They later killed his successor. In June 1569, the Calusa left Mound Key and the Spaniards dismantled their fort. For a time, everyone left the Indians alone, partly because their terrain was near-impossible to conquer for people accustomed to dealing with settled farmers. Calusa chiefs maintained their dominance over south-western Florida until the 18th century, when they were devastated by smallpox and slave raiders. Some of them moved to Cuba, where their descendants still live. Class without agriculture A chiefly palace, a domain ruled by a combination of cooperation, force, and tribute, thousands of people fed primarily from coastal waters: the Calusa thrived without agriculture, living in a complex society with elaborate ceremonies. They acquired wealth through trade and conquest over hundreds of square miles. Over many centuries, they developed one of the most politically complex societies ever to flourish without agriculture, although they were well aware of domestic crops.
The Past | April/May 2021